HDU 6052 To my boyfriend 询问分块 容斥 单调栈


To my boyfriend

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 32768/32768 K (Java/Others)

Problem Description

Dear Liao
I never forget the moment I met with you. You carefully asked me: "I have a very difficult problem. Can you teach me?". I replied with a smile, "of course". You replied:"Given a matrix, I randomly choose a sub-matrix, what is the expectation of the number of **different numbers** it contains?"
Sincerely yours,


The first line of input contains an integer T(T≤8) indicating the number of test cases.
Each case contains two integers, n and m (1≤n, m≤100), the number of rows and the number of columns in the grid, respectively.
The next n lines each contain m integers. In particular, the j-th integer in the i-th of these rows contains g_i,j (0≤ g_i,j < n*m).


Each case outputs a number that holds 9 decimal places.

Sample Input

2 3
1 2 1
2 1 2

Sample Output



6(size = 1) + 14(size = 2) + 4(size = 3) + 4(size = 4) + 2(size = 6) = 30 / 18 = 6(size = 1) + 7(size = 2) + 2(size = 3) + 2(size = 4) + 1(size = 6)








Codeforces749E Inversions After Shuffle 逆序数的期望 树状数组


E. Inversions After Shuffle

time limit per test

1 second

memory limit per test

256 megabytes


standard input


standard output

You are given a permutation of integers from 1 to n. Exactly once you apply the following operation to this permutation: pick a random segment and shuffle its elements. Formally:

  1. Pick a random segment (continuous subsequence) from l to r. All segments are equiprobable.
  2. Let k = r - l + 1, i.e. the length of the chosen segment. Pick a random permutation of integers from 1 to k, p1, p2, ..., pk. All k! permutation are equiprobable.
  3. This permutation is applied to elements of the chosen segment, i.e. permutation a1, a2, ..., al - 1, al, al + 1, ..., ar - 1, ar, ar + 1, ..., an is transformed to a1, a2, ..., al - 1, al - 1 + p1, al - 1 + p2, ..., al - 1 + pk - 1, al - 1 + pk, ar + 1, ..., an.

Inversion if a pair of elements (not necessary neighbouring) with the wrong relative order. In other words, the number of inversion is equal to the number of pairs (i, j) such that i < j and ai > aj. Find the expected number of inversions after we apply exactly one operation mentioned above.


The first line contains a single integer n (1 ≤ n ≤ 100 000) — the length of the permutation.

The second line contains n distinct integers from 1 to n — elements of the permutation.


Print one real value — the expected number of inversions. Your answer will be considered correct if its absolute or relative error does not exceed 10 - 9.

Namely: let's assume that your answer is a, and the answer of the jury is b. The checker program will consider your answer correct, if .





HDU 5723 Abandoned country 最小生成树 + 期望计算


Abandoned country

Time Limit: 8000/4000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 65536/65536 K (Java/Others)

Problem Description
An abandoned country has n(n100000) villages which are numbered from 1 to n . Since abandoned for a long time, the roads need to be re-built. There are m(m1000000) roads to be re-built, the length of each road is wi(wi1000000) . Guaranteed that any two wi are different. The roads made all the villages connected directly or indirectly before destroyed. Every road will cost the same value of its length to rebuild. The king wants to use the minimum cost to make all the villages connected with each other directly or indirectly. After the roads are re-built, the king asks a men as messenger. The king will select any two different points as starting point or the destination with the same probability. Now the king asks you to tell him the minimum cost and the minimum expectations length the messenger will walk.
The first line contains an integer T(T10) which indicates the number of test cases.
For each test case, the first line contains two integers n,m indicate the number of villages and the number of roads to be re-built. Next m lines, each line have three number i,j,wi , the length of a road connecting the village i and the village j is wi .
output the minimum cost and minimum Expectations with two decimal places. They separated by a space.
Sample Input
4 6
1 2 1
2 3 2
3 4 3
4 1 4
1 3 5
2 4 6
Sample Output
6 3.33